# Fractionally better Mathematics in the new National Curriculum for England

Primary school mathematics is undergoing some major changes. Algebra, which was previously introduced in KS3, will now be taught in Year 6, while fractions will be introduced in Year 1. Pupils should grasp basic arithmetic earlier, with memorisation of multiplication tables up to 12 expected by Year 4.

Below, we list the major changes and the best resources to deal with them.

## Key Stage 1

### Year 1

Fractions

Pupils should be taught to:

• Recognise, find and name a half as one of two equal parts of an object, shape or quantity.
• Recognise, find and name a quarter as one of four equal parts of an object, shape or quantity.

### Year 2

Multiplication and division

Pupils should be taught to:

• Recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 2, 5 and 10 multiplication tables, including recognising odd and even numbers.
• Calculate mathematical statements for multiplication and division within the multiplication tables and write them using the multiplication (x), division (÷) and equals (=) signs.

Fractions

Pupils should be taught to:

• Recognise, find, name and write fractions 1/3, 1/4, 2/4, 3/4 of a length, shape, set of objects or quantity.
• Write simple fractions, e.g., 1/2 of 6 = 3 and recognise the equivalence of 2/4 and 1/2.

### Related lesson plans and articles

Year 2 Fractions: Unit Fractions

Year 2 Fractions: Other simple fractions

Year 2 Fractions: Fractions of quantities

Year 2 Fractions: Fractions as numbers

## Lower Key Stage 2

### Year 3

Pupils should be taught to:

• Add and subtract numbers with up to three digits, using formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction.

Multiplication and division

Pupils should be taught to:

• Recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 3, 4 and 8 multiplication tables.

Fractions

Pupils should be taught to:

• Add and subtract fractions with the same denominator within one whole (e.g., 5/7 + 1/7 = 6/7).

### Year 4

Pupils should be taught to:

• Add and subtract numbers with up to four digits using the formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction where appropriate.

Multiplication and division

Pupils should be taught to:

• Recall multiplication and division facts for multiplication tables up to 12 x 12.

Fractions

Pupils should be taught to:

• Add and subtract fractions with the same denominator.

### Related articles

Year 6 algebra lesson plan

Fractions lesson plan one: simplifying, ordering and adding/subtracting

Fractions lesson plan part two: multiplying and dividing fractions

Fractions lesson plan part three: decimals

## Upper Key Stage 2

### Year 5

Multiplication and division

Pupils should be taught to:

• Solve problems involving multiplication and division where large numbers are used by decomposing them into factors.

Fractions (including decimals and percentages)

Pupils should be taught to:

• Recognise mixed numbers and improper fractions and convert from one form to the other (e.g., 2/5 + 4/5 = 6/5 = 1 1/5).

### Year 6

Pupils should be taught to:

• Divide numbers up to four digits by a two-digit whole number using the formal written method of long division, and interpret remainders as whole number remainders, fractions, or by rounding, as appropriate for the context.

Fractions (including decimals and percentages)

Pupils should be taught to:

• Multiply simple pairs of proper fractions, writing the answer in its simplest form (e.g., 1/4 x 1/2 = 1/8).

Algebra

Pupils should be taught to:

• Express missing number problems algebraically
• Use simple formulae expressed in words
• Generate and describe linear number sequences
• Find pairs of numbers that satisfy number sentences involving two unknowns
• Enumerate all possibilities of combinations of two variables.